KEKERASAN DALAM PACARAN: FAKTOR RISIKO DAN PELINDUNG SERTA IMPLIKASINYA TERHADAP UPAYA PENCEGAHAN

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Binahayati Rusyidi
Eva Nuriyah Hidayat

Abstract

Para ahli dan peneliti menunjukkan bahwa kekerasan dalam pacaran merupakan salah satu isu krusial di tingkat global yang dihadapi para remaja dan dewasa muda. Kekerasan dalam pacaran mencakup perilaku agresi secara fisik, emosional, verbal, sosial, dan seksual yang bertujuan mengendalikan dan menyakiti pasangan. Kekerasan dalam pacaran menimbulkan dampak negatif multidimensi bagi korban dan masyarakat. Namun demikian sebagian besar kajian tentang topik ini didasarkan pada konteks negara Barat atau maju. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan faktor-faktor risiko dan pelindung terhadap kekerasan dalam pacaran di kelompok remaja serta implikasinya terhadap upaya pencegahannya. Kajian ini didasarkan pada kajian literatur yang dituntun oleh perspektif ekologi sosial yang memandang interaksi berbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi perilaku manusia yang dapat diidentifikasi berada pada berbagai level lingkungan yang berbeda. Hasil dari kajian ini menunjukkan faktor-faktor yang meningkatkan potensi menjadi pelaku dan korban kekerasan dalam pacaran mencakup karakteristik individual, struktur dan interaksi dalam keluarga, karakteristik lingkungan teman sebaya serta kondisi komunitas masyarakat. Faktor-faktor pelindung yang mencegah atau mengurangi kemungkinan terlibat sebagai pelaku atau korban kekerasan dalam pacaran juga ditemukan di berbagai tingkatan lingkungan meskipun berbeda komprehensivitasnya dibandingkan faktor risiko Kajian ini mengaitkan diskusi faktor risiko dan pelindung dengan upaya pencegahan kekerasan dalam pacaran untuk konteks Indonesia.

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